Central And South America 18th April 2018

The best bits of Latin America are the rural areas. The topography and environment is diverse, there are many cultural and historical differences and most gappers have a superb time. Our rural highlights would be the Pantanal in Brazil, the Andes, Chile's Atacama Desert, Patagonia, the Chilean and Argentinian Lake District. Of the big cities Rio, BA, Medellin and Cartegna are great fun and rewarding but its important to prepared for higher levels of crime than in Europe. Its vital for those planning a big trip to check out the weather. For example its wet in Bolivia and Peru from January to March but cold and dry April to July.  On an annual basis the Inca Trail is generally shut in February do to high rain fall. Every December and January we have people arriving on our course in London about to go to South America who have no idea of the weather patterns and therefere have not planned thier route accordingly, do call for advice. We advise against all travel to Venezuela,  the country is currently very unstable with mass protests against the government, food shortage and general chaos. The US has imposed further sanctioned following the constitutionalvote held on 31 July 17 which gives President Maduro more power.  The FCO currently advises against all but essential travel to the Venezuela. Venezuela will hold another presidential election on 20 May 2018

In recent months Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador have experienced some civil unrest, generally related to worsening economic situation. These conditions are likely to continue, therefore we advise travellers to constantly check the situation.  Within the rural areas of Peru there has been a increase in drugs related violence, extreme caution should also be exercised in the rural provinces of Ayacucho, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Junin and Huallaga due to the presence of narco-terrorists  In Brazil there is a significant risk of being mugged in the big cities and in some cases where the victim is marched to an ATM machine. The current poor economic situation is leading to a significant increase in crime. There have been many cases of mass robberies of people on the beaches of Copocabana and Ipanema beaches in Rio. In an attempt to curb crime in late July 2017 the government deployed 10,000 on Rio streets.  Many attacks are initiated by false taxi drivers so only registered taxis should be used and its often safer to book a taxi via a hotel, hostel, restaurant etc where a known supplier will be used. Travellers must comply to all demands from criminal assailants.  However, don't be put off, Brazil is a wonderful country to explore, you just need to be careful. Brazil is also more expensive compared to other countries in the region, although the Real is now falling in value. The Brazilian economy is in significant decline and politically the country is very unstable following the impeachment of former President Dilma Rousseff. The new government under President Michel Temer is attempting to introduce austerity measures which is leading to further protests, daily protests have occurred in Nov 2016. However a further period of political instability is expected with many pro and anti government marches expected. Bolivia is currently facing a water shortage in many districts, some protests have occurred. Paraguay is generally a stable country although rioting broke out in Asuncion on 31 March 2017 as protest stromed Congress building in protest of the president's plan to change the constitution to seek a 2nd term.

The general economic situation in Argentina is poor but is now improving with the new president Macri as will relations with the UK over the Falkland Islands (known as Malvinas Island in Argentina). Politicaly the country will remain unstable as protests against economic reforms continue, in December 2017 there were many protests against pension reforms.  British visitors should have some knowledge of the conflict of 1982, especailly the sinking of the cruiser Belgrano by HMS Conquerer. The whole of the western coast is vulnerable to earthquakes, travellers should seek advice from the locals as to what to do in the event of a quake. On 16 April 2016 a large earthquake hit NW Ecuador, killing over 440 people and a powerful quake struck the Chilean Lake district in mid December 2016. Uraguay is currently experiencing higher than normal rainfall with flooding in Ascuncion in Jan 2018.

Relations between Colombia and Venzuela remain poor but seem to be improving since Santos became Colombia's President. Venezuela is in a very fragile state with high levels of crime, civil unrest and economic stagnation due to lower oil prices. We do not recommend travel to Venezeula at present. The border areas must be avoided between Colombia, Venezuela and Ecuador as they are unsafe and havens of numerous guerrilla groups including FARC. Colombia is certainly safer than it was 3 or 4 years ago but jungle areas near both the Ecuadorian and Venezuelan border should be avoided. The FCO Travel advice web site has a good map showing areas that must be avoided. The rebel grouping FARC signed a historic ceasefire deal with the government on 13 Nov 2016.  The other smaller rebel group, the ELN, also declared a ceasefire in September 2017 but this ended in Mid January 2018 with an attack against the Army. However in March 2018 there were indications that the talks will resume presently. This may be a tactical move on the ELN's part but travellers must adhere to the FCO's advice as to areas to avoid. Travellers crossing from Ecuador will notice that Colombia is more expensive. For those wishing to understand the background the civil war in Colombia, Tom Feiling's book  "Short Walks from Bogota" is a good read. So Colombia is much safer than a decade ago, is a wonderful destination but caution is required, there are high levels of crime in many urban areas.

Some young travellers have been robbed on buses or in urban areas. Its essential to ensure your valuables are split up - not all eggs in one basket! In popular tourist areas across South America (Buenos Aires, Cuzco, Quito) travellers face a significant threat of being mugged - always comply. A US national was shot dead outside a hotel in Medellin, Colombia in late September 2015 during a robbery and a Mexican businessman was killed in the same city in June 16, again for resisting a robbery. This just reconfires the need never to resist a robbery, just comply to demands.

Throughout the continent, but less so in Argentina & Chile, road safety is a significant issues. Two severe bus crahes have killed nearly 100 in Peru since the begining of 2018. Travellers shouod wear seats belts at all times and consider taking a cargo strap to make thire own as many buses do not have seat beats, especailly in Colombia. 

The crime rate in Guatemala, Mexico and Honduras is of particular concern, travellers need to be prepared to minimise the chances of becoming a victim of crime but also be prepared to get mugged - just comply. Mexico has been hit by 2 powerful earthquakes in 2017, the one on 19 September killed over 250 people. On 26th November 2017 Honduras held elections and there has been an increase in violence since and we urge currently we would not advise young travellers to visit Honduras except in transit. Costa Rica is the more expensive thatn other C Americal countries but is stable with superb natinal parks and opportunities for adventure activities. We have heard good reports from people travelleing in El Salvador.

Diseases

Since 2014 there has been a rapid increase in cases of Chikungunya Fever across Central America and Caribbean, caused by day biting mosquitos. Chikungunya has similar symptoms to Dengue Fever which is also a continued risk in Central and South America.  Brazil is reporting a well above average number of cases of Dengue Fever and Chikungunya, especially in Pernaambuco state, who's state capital is Recipe.  Uruguary amd Paraguay have seen a significant rise in the number of cases of Dengue Fever in 2018. There has been a significant rise in the number of cases of Yellow Fever in Brazil's Minas Gerias and Sao Paulo state. The WHO is now advising vsitors to Sao Paulo state to have gh Yellow GFever vaccination. In addition there has been a fatality from Yellow Fever in the Cochabamba province in Bolivia. As a result the Bolivian authorities are likely to be stricter about enforcing the need for a Yellow Fever certificate

The Zika virus, spread again by Aedes mosquitoes, is infecting many across the continent. Brazil suffered from a serious outbreak in 2016 but the situation has now imporved but the threat of infections remains. Any women planning to get pregnant or who are pregnant should seek medical advice and may wish to avoid the regions. For most people however the symptions are mild and much less severe than Dengue or Chikungunya Fever but the long term consequences of the diseases are still being explored. In May 2017 the Brazilian health authorities announced the Zika emergency as having finished. Dengue Fever poses a risk to all travellers and Brazil reported a significant rise in the number of cases in 2016 & 2017 complared to previous years. In Puerto Rico there has also been an increase in the cases of Zika. There may well be an increase in Zika infections when the wet season returns at the end of 2017.

A number of travellers visiting the Amazon areas of Latin America have tried the local Ayahuasca (known as Yage in Colombia) drug. This is a tribal hallucinogenic drug which we strongly advise not to be taken. It was very powerful and unpredictabel side affects, (of note, it's never given to tribal youngester) and led to the death of a British traveller in 2014. 

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